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Painel do Silubesa discute soluções e tecnologias para os resíduos

Mário Augusto Tavares , Darci Campani, Mariana Machado e Geraldo Reichert

Soluções, tecnologias e os entraves ao desenvolvimento das iniciativas voltadas aos resíduos sólidos no Brasil deram a tônica do segundo painel desta quarta-feira, último dia do Silubesa – Simpósio Luso-Brasileiro de Engenharia Sanitária e Ambiental, promovido pela ABES em parceria com a Associação Portuguesa dos Recursos Hídricos – APRH e a Associação Portuguesa de Engenharia Sanitária e Ambiental – APESB no Costão do Santinho, em Florianópolis/SC.

Coordenado por Darci Campani (ABES-RS, URFGS e DIRSA/AIDIS), o encontro contou com as participações de Mário Augusto Tavares Russo (Portugal), falando sobre “Resíduos e Recursos: tecnologias de tratamento de resíduos e desafios à reciclagem multimaterial no mundo”; Marina Machado (Laboratório de Pesquisas em Plasma – Unisul), abordando “Produção de biodiesel a partir do óleo de fritura utilizando a tecnologia de plasma” e Geraldo Reichert (DMLU Porto Alegre e ABES-RS), como debatedor. O simpósio é promovido pela ABES em parceria com a Associação Portuguesa dos Recursos Hídricos – APRH e a Associação Portuguesa de Engenharia Sanitária e Ambiental – APESB no Costão do Santinho, em Florianópolis/SC.

Mário Augusto Tavares ressaltou que, para fazer planejamento, é preciso conhecer a realidade. “Uma solução que é boa para Lisboa (Portugal) é boa para uma cidade de Angola? Não é. Encontramos soluções de empresas europeias que estão em países fazendo cópia integral. Depois existem alguns problemas”, explicou.

No mundo, 228 milhões de toneladas de plástico foram produzidos em 2012, de acordo com o palestrante, que também mostrou o panorama da gestão mundial dos resíduos; 19% de reciclagem, 70% de lixeiras e aterros e 11% de resíduos queimados. “Um dos desafios importantes é o rápido crescimento da população e da urbanização. Isso demanda recursos naturais.”

Em relação aos aterros sanitários, frisou que são fundamentais, uma solução robusta, mas não a única. Também alertou para as exportações ilegais de resíduos: “Há consequências com as exportações ilegais de resíduos, como risco à saúde e a contaminação do solo, além de perda de recursos valiosos. O mercado ilegal é da ordem de 10 a 12 milhões de dólares por ano.”

Tavares avalia que a reciclagem estará sob pressão a menos que os preços dos materiais secundários aumentem. “Como consequência, a recuperação de materiais deve declinar se não for apoiada por subsídios, medidas fiscais favoráveis ou novas contribuições dos sistemas de responsabilidade.”

Em sua palestra, Mariana Machado apresentou um trabalho sobre a produção de biodiesel, a partir do óleo de fritura, utilizando a tecnologia de plasma. Abordou os processos e a utilização dos materiais. “O objetivo é avaliar os impactos ambientais do óleo vegetal, para aplicar a tecnologia do plasma.”

Outros trabalhos realizados são o tratamento de pilhas e baterias por plasma térmico, de lodo galvânico e chorume (lodo de aterro sanitário), explicou.

Geraldo Reichert, da ABES-RS, analisou que os temas abordados pelos dois são diferentes, mas complementares. “Temos que lembrar que existem vários ‘brasis’ dentro do Brasil, um país continental, diferente em seu clima, na cultura e tudo mais”.

Vontade política e descontinuidade administrativa complicam o setor, assim com a falta de profissionalização em nosso país”, pontuou. “Nós conhecemos os problemas e os avanços são lentos nos municípios no que se refere aos resíduos sólidos urbanos. O que se percebe é um recuo da reciclagem no país, tanto nos resíduos secos como orgânicos. Temos um potencial de 70% de resíduos sólidos urbanos, mas menos de 3% são reciclados”, disse Geraldo sobre os desafios do país no setor.

Para Darci Campani, todos os palestrantes foram firmes e claros ao relatar a falta de força política no Brasil para alavancar o tratamento de resíduos sólidos. “Nós dominamos a tecnologia, mas nosso dinheiro é mal gerenciado, faltam planejamento, gestão, metas. Portugal está anos-luz à nossa frente, segue diretrizes e planejamento.”

Campani lembrou que o tratamento de resíduos é assunto discutido no país pelo poder público, que chegou a fazer contratações na área. Um conselho foi montado em Brasília. Porém, devido à crise política, está sem presidente e o tema parado. “Não deve ser discutido neste governo”, lamenta.

Ao final do painel, para o debate, aos especialistas deste painel juntaram-se os convidados do painel anterior: Heliana Kátia Tavares Campos, do SLU – Serviço de Limpeza Urbana/DF e Coordenadora da Câmara Temática de Resíduos Sólidos da ABES; Fernando leite (Vice-Presidente Diretivo da APESB); Mario Saffer (ENGEBIO); e o Prof. José Fernando T. Jucá (UFPE).

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