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Saneamento vira um simples cálculo de ativos, sem conexão a políticas públicas

Governo Federal não estuda universalização e empresas estatais viram moeda de troca no texto do Projeto de Lei

O saneamento deve ser uma política de Estado para garantir a continuidade do desenvolvimento em prol da saúde e da qualidade de vida da população. Mas nos últimos meses tem se tornado uma pauta econômica, atraindo a atenção dos especialistas e órgãos desse setor. Isso porque as empresas estaduais de saneamento estão sendo vistas como uma saída para cobrir o rombo dos cofres públicos, independentemente se o modelo a ser adotado conseguirá garantir a universalização dos serviços.

O Ministério da Economia, na tentativa de estimular governadores a vender as companhias estaduais de saneamento, fez um estudo sobre o potencial de ganho aos cofres públicos com as privatizações. Com venda de 100% do capital, essas empresas podem atingir um valor próximo a R$ 140 bilhões, diz o levantamento, como informou a imprensa.

Coincidentemente, esta visão emerge em um momento de discussão sobre a revisão do Marco Legal do Saneamento, em análise no Congresso Nacional.

Em seu estudo, o governo insiste em classificar as empresas estatais como ineficientes. Enquanto se contam os cifrões, é necessário esclarecer que isto não é verdade, como demonstra o Ranking ABES da Universalização do Saneamento (acesse aqui) .

A edição 2019 do Ranking ABES da Universalização do Saneamento abrange 100% do território nacional, contemplando todos os municípios brasileiros que forneceram ao SNIS – Sistema Nacional de Informações de Saneamento as informações para o cálculo de cada um dos cinco indicadores. São 1868 municípios e todas as 27 capitais no levantamento que relaciona o saneamento à saúde, fazendo uma correlação entre a pontuação total alcançada pelos municípios e a taxa de internação por doenças relacionadas ao saneamento ambiental inadequado.

Na classificação das capitais, o Ranking mostra exemplos de serviços eficientes em ambos os modelos entre as 10 primeiras colocadas: Curitiba, Belo Horizonte, Goiânia, São Paulo, Salvador, Vitória e João Pessoa (empresas públicas estaduais), Palmas (empresa privada), Porto Alegre (serviço municipal) e Campo Grande (empresa privada).

O mesmo ocorre entre as 10 últimas:  Maceió, (empresa estadual), Manaus (empresa privada), Boa Vista, São Luís, Rio Branco (empresas públicas), Cuiabá (empresa privada), Belém, Macapá, Teresina e Porto Velho (empresas públicas). Ou seja: a premissa é a eficiência, não importando se a empresa é pública ou privada.

Esta visão já foi superada, por exemplo, em muitos países da Europa, onde os serviços estão retornando para as mãos do poder público. De 2000 a 2017, de acordo com um mapeamento feito por onze organizações majoritariamente europeias, foram registrados 267 casos de “remunicipalização”, ou reestatização, de sistemas de água e esgoto. Desses 267 casos de retomada da gestão pública da água, 106 deles estão na França, país que foi pioneiro nas privatizações no setor. O site do Instituto possui um “mapa da remunicipalização”, em parceria com o Observatório Corporativo Europeu (acesse aqui).

A pesquisa do Instituto Transnacional (sediado na Holanda) observou que as cidades estavam voltando atrás porque constataram que, no caso europeu, as privatizações ou parcerias público-privadas (PPPs) haviam acarretado tarifas muito altas, não cumprindo promessas feitas inicialmente e operavam com falta de transparência, entre uma série de problemas vistos caso a caso. Mais uma vez: eficiência não é prerrogativa de setor público ou privado.

A Associação Brasileira de Engenharia Sanitária e Ambiental – ABES defende que as empresas públicas de saneamento não podem ser vistas como moeda de troca e não devem ser usadas para cobrir os rombos dos cofres públicos. E que o saneamento só avançará com a união entre o público e o privado.

Entidades do setor de saneamento vêm discutindo e alertando sobre esta polarização há quase dois anos e a ABES continua insistindo nesta questão.

Reverter o processo a que hoje se aspira poderá sair muito caro ao poder público e à população, que estará longe de ver a universalização e continuará pagando com sua saúde.

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