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Fenasan 2016: Dante Ragazzi Pauli coordena debate sobre Aedes aegypti e saneamento

O Encontro Técnico AESabesp ocorre no âmbito da 27ª Fenasan

Por Sueli Melo

Nesta quarta-feira, 17, o engenheiro Dante Ragazzi Pauli, ex-presidente nacional da Associação Brasileira de Engenharia Sanitária e Ambiental – ABES e membro da ABES Seção São Paulo, coordenou a mesa redonda “Aedes aegypti, desafios para o saneamento”, no Encontro Técnico AESabesp, que ocorre no âmbito da 27ª Feira Nacional de Saneamento Ambiental – Fenasan 2016.

Participaram do debate Dalton Pereira da Fonseca Júnior, da Superintendência do Controle de Endemias – Sucen/SES e Secretaria de Saneamento, e Wanderley da Silva Paganini, da Sabesp. O encontro foi realizado no Pavilhão Vermelho no Expo Center Norte, em São Paulo.

Antes de abrir o debate, Dante fez questão de mencionar a experiência na presidência da ABES, que recentemente foi assumida por Roberval Tavares de Souza. Foram três anos à frente da ABES Seção São Paulo (ABES-SP) e mais quatro no comando da entidade em nível nacional. “Tive o orgulho e a honra de presidir a ABES. Saí da presidência; da ABES, nunca pretendo sair. Confesso que saí engrandecido. Aprendi muito. Tive chance de correr o Brasil e conhecer as mazelas do nosso grande país e sua diversidade impressionante”, disse.

Sobre a discussão, Dante apresentou um panorama do saneamento no país e sua relação com o Aedes aegypti, destacando alguns pontos fundamentais para o entendimento do problema. “Primeiramente, na questão do mosquito relacionada à escassez hídrica surgiram diversos ‘especialistas’ no assunto e todo mundo começou a juntar água de uma forma ou de outra, o que acabou criando condições de criadouros para o Aedes”, avaliou. “O mosquito não escolhe região ou classe social, ele escolhe condições propícias para se desenvolver”, completou.

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Dante Ragazzi Pauli, ex-presidente nacional da ABES e membro da ABES Seção São Paulo

O engenheiro mostrou ainda dados do SNIS (2013), que apontam que 17% da população total do Brasil não têm água segura, e metade não tem coleta de esgoto. “Esses números revelam o tamanho do nosso desafio. Ainda mais porque sempre associamos a procriação e o desenvolvimento do mosquito  a uma condição de água limpa. E os últimos estudos indicam que ele se prolifera também em água suja. Isso é muito grave”, pontuou.

Ao apresentar um mapa do país, Dante explicou que os prestadores ou não têm informação sobre esgotamento sanitário ou não têm sistema público. “A quantidade de recursos previstos no PLANSAB – Plano Nacional de Saneamento Básico para atacar as questões de água, esgotamento, resíduos sólidos urbanos e drenagem urbana é expressiva: 508 bilhões de reais para os próximos 17 anos”. Segundo o especialista, dificilmente as metas impostas pelo governo federal serão cumpridas neste prazo.

No contexto da educação ambiental, Dante chamou atenção para a comunicação do setor com a sociedade, que conforme ele, é falha. “A importância do saneamento ainda não chegou com a devida eficiência aos ouvidos e ao coração da população”, disse. “Muita gente não quer conectar esgoto à sua rede pública porque acha que é caro. Mas isso é uma questão de saúde, de qualidade de vida”.

Desafios e ações de combate ao Aedes aegypti

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Dalton Pereira da Fonseca Júnior

Em sua explanação, Dalton Pereira da Fonseca Júnior abordou o cenário epidemiológico das arboviroses [doenças transmitidas por insetos e mosquitos] no Estado de São Paulo, a infestação e as ações de vigilância e controle – o ciclo biológico do mosquito e as ações de saneamento. Ele lembrou que o Aedes aegypti, além do Zika vírus, chikungunya e dengue, também é transmissor da febre amarela na forma silvestre, principalmente na região norte do Brasil. A doença no contexto urbano foi erradicada.

Entre os pontos apresentados, o especialista destacou o plano de emergência de combate ao mosquito. “Uma das vertentes de controle do vetor é o saneamento ambiental, que prevê ações como abastecimento de água, que inclui avaliação e identificação dos problemas relacionados à proliferação do Aedes, como os resíduos sólidos, principalmente o descarte de entulhos de resíduos de construção, pontos de descarte irregular pela população, explicou. Segundo Dalton, há uma ação de combate programada para o mês de setembro com esse foco.

Ele destacou também os desafios a serem enfrentados, que envolvem “controle integrado; limitação no gerenciamento dos resíduos sólidos e coleta seletiva; abastecimento e distribuição de água, insuficiência do investimento na educação ambiental; além da bioecologia do vetor, ou seja, cada vez mais ele está se adaptando ao ambiente no qual este está inserido; e falta de mobilização da população”, elencou.

A suscetibilidade das populações do Aedes à resistência, conforme explicou o palestrante, também é um grande desafio. “Só existe uma molécula para se matar o mosquito adulto – o Malation, inseticida usado no mundo todo e que já está iniciando um processo de resistência do mosquito. Por isso se restringe bastante seu uso”, afirmou.  Além disso, disse ainda, “é preciso haver engajamento do gestor. Sem essa parceria, não conseguiremos implementar nenhum programa para combater o mosquito.”

Educação ambiental

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Wanderley da Silva Paganini

Assim como Dante e Dalton, Wanderley da Silva Paganini também enfatizou a importância da mobilização da população sobre as questões ambientais. “Todos nós – do saneamento –  devemos inaugurar um novo momento na busca do envolvimento da sociedade na educação ambiental. Não tenho dúvidas de que hoje ela é o instrumento mais potente e mais eficiente para todos os nossos males” destacou.

Para Paganini, o Brasil tem de parar de reclamar da falta de dinheiro para saneamento. “Temos de investir nas pessoas. E só se muda a postura, quando a informação chega e passa a fazer parte dos valores dessa sociedade”, salientou. “Poluir é um ato, despoluir é um processo físico, químico, biológico e social”, disse, ao se referir às questões políticas e promessas relacionadas à despoluição no curto prazo. Os governantes, lembrou, só podem controlar os recursos e as obras, não a cabeça das pessoas.

Por isso, reafirmou, são importantes a educação ambiental e o diálogo com a sociedade. “As questões sociais interferem de maneira significativa no controle e nas percepções culturais. Saneamento não se faz só com obras”, concluiu.

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