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Ranking ABES da Universalização do Saneamento 2018 mostra um país de extremos: enquanto apenas 80 municípios do Brasil estão classificados com pontuação máxima, outros 1.613 sofrem com falta de saneamento

A edição 2018 do Ranking ABES da Universalização do Saneamento foi ampliada e abrange 100% do território nacional, contemplando todos os municípios brasileiros que forneceram ao SNIS1 – Sistema Nacional de Informações de Saneamento as informações para o cálculo de cada um dos cinco indicadores. Com esta mudança, o ranking passa a apresentar informações de quase 2 mil municípios, o que representa 34% deles e 67% da população do país. Todas as 27 capitais estão nesta publicação, que relaciona o saneamento à saúde, fazendo uma correlação entre a pontuação total alcançada pelos municípios e a taxa de internação por doenças relacionadas ao saneamento ambiental inadequado.

 

A Associação Brasileira de Engenharia Sanitária e Ambiental – ABES lança neste mês de junho a edição 2018 do Ranking ABES da Universalização do Saneamento (clique aqui para ver o estudo).

Compõem o ranking 1894 municípios do Brasil, 88% deles de baixo e médio porte.

Somente 80 municípios entre todos os avaliados estão na categoria máxima Rumo à universalização. Destes, os de grande porte são apenas 29 municípios, todos nas regiões Sudeste e Sul. Outros 201 estão na categoria Compromisso com a universalização e a maioria está nas categorias Primeiros Passos para a universalização e Empenho para a universalização, somando 1613 municípios (veja detalhamento abaixo e no estudo anexo) 

A região com maior representatividade no ranking é a Sudeste, com 67% dos municípios e 86,14% da população. A menor é a região Norte com 9,3% dos municípios e 43,86% da população.

“A sociedade precisa entender que saneamento é saúde”, afirma o presidente da ABES, Roberval Tavares de Souza

Para entender o Ranking

O Ranking ABES da Universalização é um instrumento de avaliação do setor no Brasil que apresenta o percentual da população das cidades brasileiras com acesso aos serviços de abastecimento de água, coleta de esgoto, tratamento de esgoto, coleta de resíduos sólidos e o quanto desses resíduos recebem destinação adequada. Dessa maneira, permite identificar o quão próximos os municípios estão da universalização do saneamento.

Nesta edição, o ranking passa a abranger 100% do território nacional, contemplando todos os municípios brasileiros que forneceram ao SNIS1 – Sistema Nacional de Informações de Saneamento as informações para o cálculo de cada um dos cinco indicadores. Com esta mudança, o ranking passa a apresentar informações de quase 2 mil municípios, o que representa 34% deles e 67% da população do país. Todas as 27 capitais estão nesta publicação.

Esta edição conta ainda com uma nova categoria: Empenho para a universalização, criada com o intuito de melhor reconhecer os municípios em diferentes estágios quanto a universalização. Ela surge como um desmembramento da primeira categoria (Primeiros passos para a universalização). Mais de 70% dos municípios ranqueados estão nesta nova categoria.

E para tornar mais equilibrada a comparação entre os municípios, o estudo passa a ser apresentado em dois grandes grupos, segundo o porte dos municípios: Pequeno e médio portes (até 100 mil habitantes) e grande porte (acima de 100 mil).

Os dados de saneamento foram obtidos do SNIS com referência ao ano de 2016, por conta da defasagem de dois anos entre a coleta dos dados e a divulgação pelo Ministério das Cidades, e os dados de saúde foram obtidos do DATASUS2 do Ministério da Saúde, com o mesmo ano de referência.

Os municípios que apresentaram as informações para o cálculo dos indicadores que compõem o ranking foram classificados em quatro categorias de acordo com a pontuação total obtida pela soma do desempenho de cada indicador. A pontuação máxima possível é de 500 pontos, atingida quando o município alcança 100% em todos os cinco indicadores:

– Rumo à universalização – acima de 489

– Compromisso com a universalização – de 450 – 489

– Empenho para a universalização – de 200 – 449 (nova categoria)

– Primeiros passos para a universalização – abaixo de 200

A outra classificação aplicada refere-se ao porte do município. A partir desta edição, o

ranking passa a apresentar os resultados em dois grandes blocos que classificam os municípios segundo o porte populacional, conforme classificação do IBGE:

– Baixo e médio portes – até 100 mil habitantes;

– Grande porte – acima de 100 mil.

A maior parte das capitais está na categoria Empenho para a universalização (70,4%). Apenas uma capital atingiu a pontuação para ser classificada em Rumo à universalização – Curitiba (PR), que na última edição do ranking já estava nessa categoria. Por outro lado, a capital menor pontuada foi Porto Velho (RO), classificada na categoria Primeiros passos para a universalização.

Somente 80 municípios entre todos os avaliados estão na categoria máxima Rumo à Universalização. Entre os de grande porte são apenas 29 municípios, todos nas regiões Sudeste e Sul.

Se considerarmos o quesito abastecimento de água, um grupo de 59 municípios atingiu a pontuação máxima. Entre os municípios de pequeno e médio portes que atingiram a pontuação máxima, 95% (39) são do Sudeste. Apenas Tamandaré (PE) e Ibiporã (PR) alcançaram essa pontuação nas regiões Nordeste e Sul, respectivamente.

No grupo de municípios de grande porte, 60% (11) deles são do Sudeste, dos quais 9 são apenas do estado de São Paulo. O Sul figura com 4 cidades, entre elas duas capitais: Porto Alegre e Curitiba. No Nordeste, João Pessoa (PB) e Vitória da Conquista (BA) atingiram a pontuação máxima. Já no Centro-oeste, a única cidade a obter essa pontuação foi Catalão em Goiás.

Pontos a destacar:

  • 1894 municípios figuram nesta edição do ranking;
  • Cerca de 88% deles são de pequeno e médio portes;
  • Apenas 80 municípios atingiram a pontuação para serem classificados na categoria mais alta – Rumo à universalização;
  • Mais de 70% dos municípios ranqueados estão na terceira categoria: Empenho para a universalização;
  • Em Primeiros passos para a universalização, dentre os municípios de grande porte chama a atenção a falta de destinação adequada dos resíduos sólidos à quase 100% dos municípios desta categoria: apenas 0,11% dos resíduos produzidos por esses municípios recebem destinação adequada;
  • A correlação entre saneamento e saúde, assim como na edição passada, ficou evidente: de forma geral, quanto maior o acesso ao saneamento, menor a incidência de internações por Doenças Relacionadas ao Saneamento Ambiental Inadequado – DRSAI;
  • 66% dos municípios do país não entraram no ranking. A maior causa foi a falta dos serviços de esgoto: mais da metade dos municípios não apresentaram dados de coleta e/ou tratamento.

 

Saneamento e saúde

Por fim, o levantamento traz ainda uma correlação entre a pontuação total alcançada pelos municípios e a taxa de internação por doenças relacionadas ao saneamento ambiental inadequado, em função da intrínseca relação entre saneamento e saúde.

A falta de saneamento adequado e a falta de higiene, segundo a UNICEF5, é responsável por aproximadamente 88% das mortes por diarreia, segunda maior causa de mortes em crianças menores de 5 anos de idade. A Organização Mundial da Saúde6 traz diagnóstico similar, mostrando que 94% dos casos de diarreia no mundo são devidos à falta de acesso à água de qualidade e ao saneamento precário.

Em função da intrínseca relação entre políticas de saneamento e condições de saúde, já em sua primeira edição o Ranking apresentou uma correlação entre as Doenças Relacionadas ao Saneamento Ambiental Inadequado (DRSAI), com todos os municípios que entraram nesta edição.

“A sociedade brasileira precisa entender que saneamento é saúde. Somente com este entendimento a população poderá identificar políticos que estejam comprometidos com esta questão e cobrar das autoridades a melhoria dos serviços. O saneamento tem impacto direto na vida de todas as pessoas e precisa ser PRIORIDADE na agenda dos governantes, dos legisladores e da sociedade em geral”, ressalta Roberval Tavares de Souza, presidente nacional da ABES. 

Para a edição 2017 do Ranking, acesse aqui  

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  55. aqui no Paraná, varios municipios associados ao Consórcio CISPAR, como Jussara, Lobato, PRado Ferreira, São jorge do Ivaí, entre outros possuem 100 % de cobertura de coleta e 100% de tratamento de esgotos sanitários… há necessidade de colocar neste ranking os pequenos municipios, que estão fazendo com saneamento municipal o seu dever de casa.

  56. o rural também deve ser contemplado, pois o Brasil há milhares de comunidades rurais que necessitam também deste importante investimento, que reflete na saúde da população, pois é propagado que a cada Real investido em saneamento economiza-se quatro Reais.
    então vamos governo Federal fazer o dever de casa

  57. O instituto precisa incluir na pesquisa o município de Quissamã/RJ que possui praticamente 100% do esgoto tratado e água tb.

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